Comte proceeds from idea of unity and hierarchical structure of all life, including the human. On the basis of such representation it builds the classification of sciences which gained wide fame. This classification includes six main sciences: mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and sociology.
For understanding of essence of positivistic philosophy it is insufficiently simple to mark out those lines which it is general to its various forms, it is necessary to open internal tendencies of development of positivism, to find out the reasons of its emergence and driving springs of its evolution. And it, in turn, demands the accounting of those changes in relationship of science and philosophy which are characteristic for modern times.
Comte adds such lines of positive thinking as a tendency everywhere to replace absolute relative, its directly social character, and also close connection with general common sense to these values
Consideration of problems and opportunities of knowledge is one of through problems of philosophy. However during various eras this problem gets the peculiar features, is considered in various foreshortenings. In present period it is connected, first of all, with characteristic features of development of a scientific and technical civilization, with the forms of understanding of reality generated by it.
The panorama of anthropological concepts of the XIX century could be presented by more considerable number of a personnel, but, without inclusion in it of a creative heritage of F. M. Dostoyevsky, it could hardly be full.
Emil Littre (01801-0188 was the most considerable adherent of Comte, but rejected as his wrong later evolution, going in the thinking in own way; about three stages he added concept of the fourth stage equipment to Comte's doctrine.
Each of the listed sciences represents some kind of step in relation to the subsequent. Each of them borrows at previous its methods and adds to them still the own, caused by specifics of the studied object. All sciences pass theological, metaphysical and positive stages in the development; only on the last they become sciences in the true sense.