Non-cash and monetary turn. Its primary development is explained by the objective reasons and the events which are consciously held by the state, which purpose – creation of rational system. calculations and economy of public distribution costs.
By simple commodity production money expressed the relations of the separated producers. The sense of purchase and sale (‘T – D – T’) consisted in an exchange of potrebitelny costs. Serving capitalist commodity production, money gets additional potrebitelny cost: from the simple intermediary of the address of goods they turn into a capital circulation condition.
Funds always are in the movement: D-T-P-T1-D At the first stage (D-t) can arise need for money, at the second stage (T-P-T - only in case of long production, on the third (T1-D releases money.
The economic nature of B.D. such is that excludes possibility of the steady fiduciary address. First, B.D.'s release is not regulated by need of commodity turnover for money; secondly, there is no mechanism of automatic withdrawal of surplus of B.D. from the address.
Monetary circulation is use of money as an instrument of payment and a currency. The factors defining necessary quantity of money for performance of function of a currency by them are:
Direct work of each producer is private work. Public recognition of work possibly only through an exchange, thus public nature of work it is hidden, i.e. money is necessary for a soizmereniye of costs of creation of a product.
Influence on production double: at the beginning price increase and profits promotes production revival, but further this process turns into a production development brake since podryvaat interest in long-term investments and, therefore, to updating of production and strengthens the crisis phenomena in production. This second influence is stronger and long-term.
Forms of control of a controlled increase in prices are shown, first, in "freezing" of the prices of certain goods, secondly, in control of their level in certain limits. Similar control remained in all the blowing developed countries.
– In terms of money. It is used for the accounting of expenses of the live and substantiated work, planned and actual, individual and socially necessary. Thus denog are used for the accounting of all types of expenses of work.
The most important quantitative index of monetary circulation is the monetary loan representing total volume purchasing and the means of payment serving economic circulation and belonging to individuals, the enterprises and the state. For the analysis of quantitative changes of monetary circulation for a certain date and for a certain period, and also for development of actions for regulation of growth rates and volume of money supply various indicators (monetary units) are used.