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Fagotsitoz-pogloshcheniye firm particles. The cages which are carrying out are called as phagocytes; this function is, for example, by some types of leukocytes. The sack enveloping the absorbed particle call fagotsitozny.

Pinotsitoz is characteristic for ameboidny and for many others (often ameboidny) a, such as leukocytes, cages of a germ, cell of a liver and some cells of kidneys participating in a water-salt exchange. It is possible to observe as well in cages of plants.

Modification of this mechanism is so facilitated diffusion at which to a any specific molecule helps to pass through a membrane. This molecule can have a special channel passing substances only of one certain type. Intake of glucose in is an example of such ; it is not broken by inhibitors of breath and, therefore, is not active process.

Transfer of sodium and potassium through a membrane ­ as believe, as a result of conformational changes which are undergone by this protein. Protein works and as Atfaza, catalyzing hydrolysis of ATP with release of energy which the pump in the movement. Pay attention that three ions of sodium are brought to each two absorbed potassium ions from a cage. of it contents of a cage becomes more, in relation to environment, and between two parties of a membrane there is a of potentials.

All processes of activity of cages happen to expense of energy which arrives from the outside and is transformed by special organala of a cage: in a plant cell is a chloroplast, in animal – mitochondrions. Processes of transformation of energy photosynthesis (vegetable, ATP synthesis – an animal cage is called.

Arnon quite right foretold that photo phosphorylation, as well as an oxidizing, has to be interfaced to transfer of electrons in membranes. Transfer of electrons is a basis for understanding as photosynthesis, and.

Rather recently it became clear that at the most part of cages in a plasmatic membrane the sodium pump which is actively extorting sodium from a cage operates. Usually, though not always, the sodium pump is interfaced to the potassium pump, actively potassium ions from environment and transferring them to a cage. Such integrated pump call sodium - the potassium pump (Na +, K+ - the pump).

In nervous and muscular cages sodium - the potassium pump provides emergence in a plasmatic membrane of the potential difference called rest. In membranes of a sarkoplazmatichesky retikulum of muscular cages the pump, Na +, with K+ - to the pump operates; in this case due to energy of ATP in sarkoplazmatichesky calcium is actively pumped up.

The sodium extorted from a cage usually passively diffundirut back in a cage. However the membrane is not enough pronitsayem for sodium and therefore this in the opposite direction occurs very. For membrane potassium ions approximately by 100 times more a pronitsayema, than for sodium; also diffundirut potassium much quicker.

Pinotsitoz - absorption of liquid material (solution, colloidal solution, suspension). Often thus very small bubbles are formed. In that case speak about a mikropinotsitoza and bubbles call mikropinotsitozny.