Intensity of many soil processes connected with transformations, transfer and accumulation in the soil of organic and mineral compounds considerably depends on mechanical structure of soils and pochvoobrazuyushchy breeds.
Solid paraffin very difficult collapses, hardly is oxidized on air. It for a long time can "seal" all time of a soil cover, having deprived the soil of possibility of free moisture exchange and breath. It, first of all, leads to full degradation of a biocenosis.
Against the general decrease in concentration of oil in the soil decrease in the maintenance of its group components happens unevenly. Quicker than other components the relative and absolute maintenance of metane and naphthenic fraction decreases. These UV give in to biodegradation, besides, they more a rastvorima in water that facilitates their carrying out out of limits of sites of pollution easier.
Oil is the liquid natural solution consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons (At a various structure and high-molecular resinous substances. In it a quantity of water, salts, microcells is dissolved. Main elements: With - 83-87%, N - 12-14%, N, S, O - 1-2%, are more rare than 3-6% for account S. The tenth and 100-th shares of percent of oil make numerous microcells.
For those 400 million Years that life on Earth came out of the water, to a surface of our planet there were big changes: stony and argillo-arenaceous deserts became covered by a thin cover of habitat of land animals and plants. The defining role in formation of this live cover of Earth was played by photosynthesizing plants. Owing to their activity the blanket of Earth was enriched with organic substances, sated with a set of geterotrofny microorganisms, the soil ecosystems giving food for animals were created. They are the main sources of food and for the person.
The structure of the soil is important for implementation of soil processes. Any soil can be considered as the heterogeneous, multiphase system consisting from firm (mineral "skeleton", organic and biological components), liquid (soil solution) and gaseous (soil air) phases. The soil represents the biomineral (bioinert) dynamic system which is in material and power interaction with environment and partially closed through biological circulation of substances.
The main pochvoobrazuyushchy role belongs to forest vegetation. Its biomass on a land surface is made by 1011 - 1012 t. The remains of vegetation arrive on a soil surface generally in the form of an opad. On the second place on biomass of pochvoobrazuyushchy green plants - grassy vegetation (1010 - 1011 t). Thus biomass of roots usually exceeds biomass of land part of grassy vegetation.
Pitches and asfaltena are high-molecular not hydrocarbonic components of oil. Pitches - viscous mazepodobny in-va, asfaltena - firm, insoluble in low-molecular UV. According to the content of pitches and asfalten of oil are subdivided on:
Fertility of the soil is defined by the contents in it humic substances. These substances chemically are also microbiological steady. They are intermediate products in the course of formation of coal. The mature humic soil horizons are formed for hundreds of years, and mineral - for thousands and millions of years.
The biological component of soil ecosystems is presented by green plants, microorganisms and animals. At impact of organisms on the soil in the course of their activity the most important links of soil formation - synthesis and destruction of organic substance, selective concoction of biologically important microcells, destruction and a new growth of minerals and accumulation of substances are carried out.
To consider any environmental problem, it is necessary to know first of all" participants" of this problem. In our case" participants" of this problem are: oil and soil. Let's consider them more attentively from the point of view of their interaction.